Recruitment is the organisation process whereby the business starts to find and engages itself to the people the organization needs. Selection in itself is a part of the recruitment process that is concerned with deciding on the applicants/candidates who should be appointed for the posts. Recruitment and Selection are both key activities for the firm, as they entail the processes that would help the business in employing staff that would be entrusted with the responsibility of taking the organisation forward and achieve the competitive advantage the business exisits for.
Recruitment is a positive process of finding and employing the human resource that can aid in achievement of business objective whereas selection is a part of the recruitment process deals with decision making on the applicants that shall join the organization.
Recruitment is the organised process whereby the business starts to find and engages itself to the people the organization needs. Selection in itself is a part of the recruitment process that is concerned with deciding on the applicants/candidates who should be appointed for the posts. Recruitment and Selection are both key activities for the firm, as they entail the processes that would help the business in employing staff that would be entrusted with the responsibility of taking the organisation forward and achieve the competitive advantage the business exisits for.
The Recruitment and Selection Process
The four stages of recruitment and selection are as follows.
Recruitment and selection stages
- Defining requirements stage is concerned with the preparation of role profiles, and personal specification for the position plus making decision on terms and conditions of employment.
- Planning recruitment campaigns.
- Attracting candidates reviewing and evaluating alternative sources of applicants, inside and outside the company: advertising, e-recruiting, agencies and consultants.
- Selecting candidates sifting applications, interviewing, testing, assessing candidates, assessment centres, offering employment, obtaining references; preparing contracts of employment.
1. Requirements Definition for Recruitment Process
This stage entails the preparation of defining the role for the job, normally referred to as job description and the preparation of person specifications I-e the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to performance the job at the optimum level plus making decision on terms and conditions of employment.
Requirement plan originates from the formal HR or workforce plans that highlights the number and categories of people required.
Creation of new posts, expansion of the business into new domains or replacement needs of the organisation makes the requirement definition adhoc, that is they are defined as on need basis. the immidiate need for requirements definition could cause HR to be under pressure to deliver candidates quickly that could affect the HR performance and availability of right persons for the right job at the right time. Requirements are expressed in the form of Job Descriptions/Role profiles and person specifications. The requisites help in putting forward advertisements, announcing vaccancies through mediums like internet, agencies or consultants and aid in assessing candidates against the jobs using varied methods.
Role profiles defines the overall job purpose, its reporting relationships and the key result areas. List of the competencies for the job could very well be included in the role profiles. for instance technical competencies (knowledge and skills) or behavioural competencies attached to the role. The recruitment role profile provides the basis for a person specification.
A person specification, also known as a recruitment or job specification, defines the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required to carry out the role and the education, training, qualifications and experience needed to acquire the necessary KSAs.
2. Planning Recruitment Campaigns
Recruitment campaign refers to planning, designing and making an organized and active effort with regards to creating a pool of talented people who can effectively and efficiently contribute to the operations of the business. A recruitment plan will cover the number and types of employees required to cater for expansion or new developments and make up for any deficits or shortages. Plus the likely sources of likely sources of candidates from which selection could be made, in case of emergencies the organization should have plans for tapping into the alternative sources and finally how the recruitment program will be conducted.
A plan for recruitment will include the following:
- The number and types of employees required to cater for recruitment that could be due to the expansion/new developments or to make up for any loss of personnel/HR.
- Identification of The pool/sources of candidated.
- Alternative Sources for employees and their tapping.
- PLan for conducting the recruitment programme.
3. Attracting Candidates
Once the pool is ready the next step is to select those candidates that meet the needs of the jobs by reviewing and evaluating alternative sources of applicants, inside and outside the company: advertising, e-recruiting, agencies and consultants. Attracting candidates is primarily a matter of identifying, evaluating and using the most appropriate sources of applicants. However, in cases where difficulties in attracting or retaining candidates are being met or anticipated, it may be necessary to carry out a preliminary study of the factors that are likely to attract or repel candidates the strengths and weakness of the organization as an employer. The analysis of strengths and weaknesses should cover such matters as the national or local reputation of the organization, pay, employee benefits and working conditions, the intrinsic interest of the job, security of employment, opportunities for education and training, career prospects, and the location of the office or plant. The analysis can show where the organization needs to improve as an employer if it is to attract more or better candidates and to retain those selected.
It is the matter of attracting the most appropriate source of applicants. However, it is always a good idea to carry out a preliminary stidy on the factors that are likely to attract/repel potential employees. it is important to consider the following while attracting candidates
- Analyse the strengths and weakness of the business.
- Analyse the requirements.
- Identify Sources of candidates.
- The Pros and Cons of Advertising and use of the Advertising media.
- Use of Online recruitment facilities.
- How and when to use services of Recruitment and Selection Consultants .
4. Selecting Candidates
Scrutinizing the applications, conducting interviews, taking testis, assessing candidates through assessment centers, offering employment, obtaining references; preparing contracts of employment. Selection of candidates is aimed at finding suitable candidates that would be competent in carrying the duties assigned successfully. It about matching the competencies, experience, skills, and education to the requirements of the job. It also involves making the right choice between a pool of potential candidates. A trio exists that help the business in making selection decisions, The classic trio consists of:
- Application forms - Providing vital information on the credentials of the potential job candidate
- Iinterviews - offering a chance to the employer to observe and evaluate the candidate fomally
- References. - Highlights the character and views of others about the potential employee.
It is suggessted that Selection tests and assessment centres shall be added to the above list of selection options.
Gareth Roberts., (2005). Recruitement and Selection , 2nd Edition