Needs Assessment - What it Contains?

Once the concept note is finalized or approved, data collection tools are developed and those are pre-tested. Enumerators are trained on data collection tools and methodology. A database is developed to enter the data, and then it is analyzed using different statistical software like Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Report for the needs assessment is produced based on the findings. Outlines of a needs assessment report include the following:

How to prepare Questionnaire for KAP Study | M&E

KAP Questionnaire

To perform a KAP Study first of all write a concept note for the study. This will set a path for the study. Tips on how to write a concept note are discussed in detail in another article but the following headings should be used as a format for a concept note for a KAP Study:


What to Monitor? How to Set Monitoring Priorities?

The best way to select monitoring priorities is to think about the uses for the information. Determining in advance how the information will be used would allow the M&E staff to avoid gathering data that, although interesting, has no particular function. To help identify priorities, the M&E function asks the user group to consider how the monitoring data collected will be used. Some potential uses for the monitoring data include:


List of Useful Indicators Used in Monitoring & Evaluation Studies

A list of indicators that can be used in projects in social, economic, political and educational sectors.


What does a Project Monitoring Plan Contains?

Project Monitoring Plan

This section requires the names of the persons/departments who need the collected information and will use it. It can be a person like Project Manager, M&E Manager, HR Manager etc or even a department like Finance Department, HR Department, Admin Section etc. Every information collected has some application and use. Before collecting information it must be known what the collected data will be used for? Write clearly the purpose so that during collection of data the data colletor has the whole context and knows about the intended use of the information.

Methods & Tools for Collecting M&E Data?

M&E Data Collection Tools

During the planning process of the M&E study that you are going to conduct you will need to decide what data and information to collect to support you in measuring and assessing the progress. Also devise way of how you will collect the data using these methods. Data collection methods will depend on the kind of indicators and the key questions that you have identified and other required information.


What are Indicators and Types of Indicators?

indicators types and Definition

Indicators are clues, signs or markers that measure one aspect of a program and show how close a program is to its desired path and outcomes. Indicators are realistic and measurable criteria of project progress. They should be defined before the project starts, and allow us to monitor or evaluate whether a project does what it said it would do. In project planning; indicators form the link between theory and practice. An indicator is a tool to help you to know whether your work is making a difference. Indicators usually describe observable changes or events which relate to the project intervention. They provide the evidence that something has happened – whether an output delivered, an immediate effect occurred or a long-term change observed.

Write a Concept Note for M&E Study

Concept Note

State explicitly why are you going to conduct this study? What are your goals? What expectations do you have? What will be the benefit of this study? Give a brief introduction of the area/project that has led to this Monitoring and Evaluation study. Be brief but cover all the important and relevant points. In this section define the scope and limitations of the study. Describe the aspects that you would be covering and those you would not. This will keep the audience concentrated on the work that you intend to do.

Qualities and Characteristics of Indicators

Qualities of Indicators

An indicator is a variable whose value changes from the baseline level at the time the program began to a new value after the program and its activities have made their impact felt. At that point, the variable, or indicator, is calculated again. An indicator is a measurement. It measures the value of the change in meaningful units that can be compared to past and future units. This is usually expressed as a percentage or a number. Good Indicators must have the following qualities

Purpose & Importance of PMP

A performance management plan is a critical tool for planning, managing, and documenting data collection and data use. It contributes to the effectiveness of the performance monitoring system by assuring that comparable data will be collected on a regular and timely basis. These are essential to the operation of a credible and useful performance-based management approach. PMPs promote the collection of comparable data (baseline, targets, and progress) by sufficiently documenting indicator definitions, sources, and methods of data collection.


What is Performance Monitoring Plan (PMP)?

Performance Monitoring Plan PMP

It serves as a reference document that contains the targets, definition of each indicator (in the context of the project), the methods of data collection and frequency of data collection for each indicator, who will be responsible for collecting the data and how will the collected data be used. Basically it is required by USAID from the grantee. The grantee has to document and report its M&E system in the PMP. Receiving the M&E performance from all the grantees on one specific format helps the USAID to compare/analyze the performance of grantees with each other.


Characteristics of a Good Monitoring & Evaluation System

Required Qualities of M&E System

A well-designed M&E system should describe in detail the following things:

What is Monitoring?


The Periodic tracking (for example, daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually) of any activity’s progress by systematically gathering and analyzing data and information is called Monitoring. The target audience/beneficiaries must be defined along with what you are doing, and whether your activities are being implemented as planned or not.

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